Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections

Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Arti...

Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections


Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections

Some already imagine seeing men and women politicians replaced by machines, who would now be able to make decisions. But is it really possible? And, above all, is it reasonable?

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"Even if everything is not yet clear, the AI [artificial intelligence] could become very useful in terms of politics, in terms of the link between citizen and state, including," said C├ędric Villani in the magazine "Charles" this quarter. The MP for Essonne, author of a report on the AI made late March to the government, considers its use to answer questions from the public. "No one is supposed to ignore the law - but the law is a set of incomprehensible texts. He imagines a chatbot who would review all the articles of our thick codes to extract a substantial answer. Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections

Machine learning in politics


The AI is content here to provide a service, but could not it also help politicians to make decisions? After all, they clash year-round, but could not we let the machine decide? And if the algorithm just took their place? The idea may seem far-fetched, but 18% of French believe that "the AI could make better choices than elected officials, provided that the final decision is a human being," according to an OpenText survey conducted online at 2,000 people.

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In Japan, an artificial intelligence even ran for mayor of Tama, in the Tokyo region, last April. Certainly, in practice, a human came for her, Michihito Matsuda. But on his campaign posters, you could see a robot with feminine forms. Michihito Matsuda, if he won, wanted to let the AI determine the policies thanks to the data at his disposal. A political project that did not win the support of the population, but which nevertheless collected 9.31% of the votes cast, more than 4,000 votes. Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections
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Artificial intelligence elections


In France, the computer lab at Sorbonne University has designed a software, WorkSim, to estimate the consequences of employment policies. In 2016, he estimated that the el Khomri law, which had been the subject of much debate and opposition, would reduce unemployment by 0.5% in the short term, but would have no impact in the long run. The model had also been driven to find solutions and, on this issue, the two researchers who had developed it diverged. For one, Jean-Daniel Kant, the most effective was a reduction of working time, while for the other, Gerard Ballot, it was better to strengthen the training. This example shows that the machine is not enough to decide; it is necessary, in the best of cases, to interpret ...

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At the Boston Consulting Group, Sylvain Duranton, Associate Director, worked on optimizing a city's transportation network with the help of an AI system. Timetables, number of trains, frequentation, everything was passed to the mill for more efficiency. Problem: "We will have some areas where we do not stop," he says. Which went against a certain idea of social justice. Determining the extent to which reductions in traffic could be accepted at these locations was a highly political issue. It was necessary to integrate into the algorithm a numerical value in order to correct its conclusions. And the term value is not here a pure etymological accident.

Can artificial intelligence instead of politics? | Artificial intelligence elections


"The models, despite their reputation for impartiality, reflect goals and ideologies."

politics and artificial intelligence


When an algorithm is corrected, the value that is embedded in a moral value. "Models, despite their reputation for impartiality, reflect goals and ideologies," writes Cathy O'Neil, a mathematician, and author of "Weapons of Math Destruction" (Crown Books, 2016). "When I take away [my family's] ability to eat cookies at every meal, I impose my ideology on the menu model. "

machine learning in politics


When humans use algorithms to put public policies in place, they must have the intellectual honesty to explain what they are aiming for, their purpose, their horizon. Looking for economic efficiency is not the same as looking for social justice ... at least for an algorithm.

AI[artificial intelligence] political science

Because the mistake would be to think that we must oppose efficiency and justice. Is not justice also a type of efficiency? When we refuse to isolate neighborhoods by guaranteeing them a public transport service, it is in the objective of a cohesion of the territory, even of the national unity. Those who will defend this service will say that it allows being more effective in this respect. They will also add that this cohesion serves economic efficiency in fine; it allows people to get to work at a lower cost. But perhaps something else is sought after economic efficiency (the common good?).

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Admittedly, we can imagine responding to these various imperatives by multiplying the variables, by integrating economic, social, environmental, and so on. The problem is that, by force, the variables become innumerable and often contradictory. They may also lack methodological soundness: "The Economist" recalled in its April 28 issue that 80% of microeconomics studies exaggerated their results and that 90% of them did not rely on sufficient samples. And even when studies help build variables, the difficulty is how to articulate them.

machine learning in politics


Another concern: some human behaviors are beyond modeling. Otherwise, many parents would have understood for a long time why their children, raised in the same way, are so different.

Artificial intelligence, as before it statistics, is nonetheless a useful scientific tool for developing and evaluating public policies. Charge the human to say clearly in which direction these policies should go.

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